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1.A.24.1.1
Connexin 43 (gap junction α-1 protein), CX43 (transports ATP, ADP and AMP better than CX32 does; Goldberg et al., 2002). Hemichannels mediate efflux of glutathione, glutamate and other amino acids as well as ATP (Stridh et al., 2008; Kang et al., 2008). CX43 has a half life of ~3 h due to ubiquitination and lysosomal and proteasomal degradation (Leithe and Rivedal, 2007). Cx43 and Cx46 regulate each other's expression and turnover in a reciprocal manner in addition to their conventional roles as gap junction proteins in lens cells (Banerjee et al., 2011). A mutant form of Connexin 43 causes Oculodentodigital dysplasia (Gabriel et al., 2011).  Suppressing the function of Cx43 promotes expression of wound healing-associated genes and hibitits scarring (Tarzemany et al. 2015).  Channel conductance and size selectivity are largely determined by pore diameter, whereas charge selectivity results from the amino-terminal domains; transitions between fully open and (multiple) closed states involves global changes in structure of the pore-forming domains (Ek Vitorín et al. 2016). The human Cx43 orthologue is almost identical to the rat protein.  It may mediate resistance against the parkinsonian toxin, 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridine (MPP+) which induces apoptosis in neuroblastoma cells by modulating mitochondrial apoptosis (Kim et al. 2016).  Dopamine neurons may be the target of MPP+ and play a role in Parkinson's disease. In humans, Cx43 plays roles in the development of the central nervous system and in the progression of glioma (Wang et al. 2017).

Accession Number:P08050
Protein Name:CXA1 aka CX43 aka GJA1 aka CXN-43
Length:382
Molecular Weight:43031.00
Species:Rattus norvegicus (Rat) [10116]
Number of TMSs:4
Location1 / Topology2 / Orientation3: Cell membrane1 / Multi-pass membrane protein2
Substrate glutamate, Amino acids, ATP, small molecules

Cross database links:

Genevestigator: P08050
eggNOG: maNOG05724
RefSeq: NP_036699.1   
Entrez Gene ID: 24392   
Pfam: PF00029    PF03508    PF10582   
KEGG: rno:24392   

Gene Ontology

GO:0005922 C:connexon complex
GO:0005769 C:early endosome
GO:0005789 C:endoplasmic reticulum membrane
GO:0005916 C:fascia adherens
GO:0030660 C:Golgi-associated vesicle membrane
GO:0005887 C:integral to plasma membrane
GO:0005764 C:lysosome
GO:0045121 C:membrane raft
GO:0005741 C:mitochondrial outer membrane
GO:0005771 C:multivesicular body
GO:0005243 F:gap junction channel activity
GO:0030165 F:PDZ domain binding
GO:0017124 F:SH3 domain binding
GO:0006915 P:apoptosis
GO:0015867 P:ATP transport
GO:0007267 P:cell-cell signaling
GO:0016264 P:gap junction assembly
GO:0008285 P:negative regulation of cell proliferation
GO:0048812 P:neuron projection morphogenesis
GO:0045732 P:positive regulation of protein catabolic pr...
GO:0051259 P:protein oligomerization
GO:0051924 P:regulation of calcium ion transport
GO:0043434 P:response to peptide hormone stimulus
GO:0009268 P:response to pH
GO:0010232 P:vascular transport

References (8)

[1] “Connexin43: a protein from rat heart homologous to a gap junction protein from liver.”  Beyer E.C.et.al.   2826492
[2] “Molecular cloning of a rat uterine gap junction protein and analysis of gene expression during gestation.”  Lang L.M.et.al.   1852114
[3] “The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).”  The MGC Project Teamet.al.   15489334
[4] “The Mr 28,000 gap junction proteins from rat heart and liver are different but related.”  Nicholson B.J.et.al.   2987225
[5] “Affinity purification of a rat-brain junctional protein, connexin 43.”  Dupont E.et.al.   1652440
[6] “Connexon integrity is maintained by non-covalent bonds: intramolecular disulfide bonds link the extracellular domains in rat connexin-43.”  John S.A.et.al.   1651718
[7] “Membrane topology and quaternary structure of cardiac gap junction ion channels.”  Yeager M.et.al.   1371548
[8] “Identification and functional analysis of novel phosphorylation sites in Cx43 in rat primary granulosa cells.”  Yogo K.et.al.   12417300
Structure:
1R5S   3CYY     

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FASTA formatted sequence
1:	MGDWSALGKL LDKVQAYSTA GGKVWLSVLF IFRILLLGTA VESAWGDEQS AFRCNTQQPG 
61:	CENVCYDKSF PISHVRFWVL QIIFVSVPTL LYLAHVFYVM RKEEKLNKKE EELKVAQTDG 
121:	VNVEMHLKQI EIKKFKYGIE EHGKVKMRGG LLRTYIISIL FKSVFEVAFL LIQWYIYGFS 
181:	LSAVYTCKRD PCPHQVDCFL SRPTEKTIFI IFMLVVSLVS LALNIIELFY VFFKGVKDRV 
241:	KGRSDPYHAT TGPLSPSKDC GSPKYAYFNG CSSPTAPLSP MSPPGYKLVT GDRNNSSCRN 
301:	YNKQASEQNW ANYSAEQNRM GQAGSTISNS HAQPFDFPDD NQNAKKVAAG HELQPLAIVD 
361:	QRPSSRASSR ASSRPRPDDL EI