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1.E.11 The φ11 Holin (φ11 Holin) Family

See 1.E for a generalized description of Holins.


The pneumococcal EJ-1 phage holin (EJh) is a hydrophobic peptide (85 aas) with 2 putative TMSs displaying lethal inner membrane disruptive activity. The synthetic N-terminal TMS flanked by its N-terminal positively charged residues folds into a transmembrane α-helix that increases the membrane permeability. Oligomeric channels of various sizes form depending on the peptide to lipid ratio (Haro et al., 2003). By atomic force microscopy, peptide-induced membrane holes can be seen.

This family belongs to the: Holin Superfamily I.

References associated with 1.E.11 family:

Bon, J., N. Mani, and R.K. Jayaswal. (1997). Molecular analysis of lytic genes of bacteriophage 80 alpha of Staphylococcus aureus. Can. J. Microbiol. 43: 612-616. 9246739
Cerca, N., R. Oliveira, and J. Azeredo. (2007). Susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic cells and biofilms to the lytic action of staphylococcus bacteriophage K. Lett Appl Microbiol 45: 313-317. 17718845
Curtin, J.J. and R.M. Donlan. (2006). Using bacteriophages to reduce formation of catheter-associated biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 1268-1275. 16569839
Diaz, E., M. Munthali, H. Lunsdorf, J.V. Holtje, and K.N. Timmis. (1996). The two-step lysis system of pneumococcal bacteriophage EJ-1 is functional in gram-negative bacteria: triggering of the major pneumococcal autolysin in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 19: 667-681. 8820638
Haro, A., M. Vélez, E. Goormaghtigh, S. Lago, J. Vázquez, D. Andreu, and M. Gasset. (2003). Reconstitution of holin activity with a synthetic peptide containing the 1-32 sequence region of EJh, the EJ-1 phage holin. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 3929-3936. 12464609
Loessner, M.J., S. Gaeng, G. Wendlinger, S.K. Maier, and S. Scherer. (1998). The two-component lysis system of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage Twort: a large TTG-start holin and an associated amidase endolysin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 162: 265-274. 9627962
Martínez, V., P. García, J.L. García, and M.A. Prieto. (2011). Controlled autolysis facilitates the polyhydroxyalkanoate recovery in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Microb Biotechnol 4: 533-547. 21418544
Seal, B.S., D.E. Fouts, M. Simmons, J.K. Garrish, R.L. Kuntz, R. Woolsey, K.M. Schegg, A.M. Kropinski, H.W. Ackermann, and G.R. Siragusa. (2011). Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages ΦCP39O and ΦCP26F: genomic organization and proteomic analysis of the virions. Arch Virol 156: 25-35. 20963614