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1.E.11 The φ11 Holin (φ11 Holin) Family

See 1.E for a generalized description of Holins.


The pneumococcal EJ-1 phage holin (EJh) is a hydrophobic peptide (85 aas) with 2 putative TMSs displaying lethal inner membrane disruptive activity. The synthetic N-terminal TMS flanked by its N-terminal positively charged residues folds into a transmembrane α-helix that increases the membrane permeability. Oligomeric channels of various sizes form depending on the peptide to lipid ratio (Haro et al., 2003). By atomic force microscopy, peptide-induced membrane holes can be seen.

This family belongs to the: Holin Superfamily I.

References associated with 1.E.11 family:

Bon, J., N. Mani, and R.K. Jayaswal. (1997). Molecular analysis of lytic genes of bacteriophage 80 alpha of Staphylococcus aureus. Can. J. Microbiol. 43: 612-616. 9246739
Cerca, N., R. Oliveira, and J. Azeredo. (2007). Susceptibility of Staphylococcus epidermidis planktonic cells and biofilms to the lytic action of staphylococcus bacteriophage K. Lett Appl Microbiol 45: 313-317. 17718845
Curtin, J.J. and R.M. Donlan. (2006). Using bacteriophages to reduce formation of catheter-associated biofilms by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50: 1268-1275. 16569839
Diaz, E., M. Munthali, H. Lunsdorf, J.V. Holtje, and K.N. Timmis. (1996). The two-step lysis system of pneumococcal bacteriophage EJ-1 is functional in gram-negative bacteria: triggering of the major pneumococcal autolysin in Escherichia coli. Mol. Microbiol. 19: 667-681. 8820638
Haro, A., M. Vélez, E. Goormaghtigh, S. Lago, J. Vázquez, D. Andreu, and M. Gasset. (2003). Reconstitution of holin activity with a synthetic peptide containing the 1-32 sequence region of EJh, the EJ-1 phage holin. J. Biol. Chem. 278: 3929-3936. 12464609
Loessner, M.J., S. Gaeng, G. Wendlinger, S.K. Maier, and S. Scherer. (1998). The two-component lysis system of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage Twort: a large TTG-start holin and an associated amidase endolysin. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 162: 265-274. 9627962
Martínez, V., P. García, J.L. García, and M.A. Prieto. (2011). Controlled autolysis facilitates the polyhydroxyalkanoate recovery in Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Microb Biotechnol 4: 533-547. 21418544
Seal, B.S., D.E. Fouts, M. Simmons, J.K. Garrish, R.L. Kuntz, R. Woolsey, K.M. Schegg, A.M. Kropinski, H.W. Ackermann, and G.R. Siragusa. (2011). Clostridium perfringens bacteriophages ΦCP39O and ΦCP26F: genomic organization and proteomic analysis of the virions. Arch Virol 156: 25-35. 20963614
Song, J., F. Xia, H. Jiang, X. Li, L. Hu, P. Gong, L. Lei, X. Feng, C. Sun, J. Gu, and W. Han. (2016). Identification and characterization of HolGH15, the holin of Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophage GH15. J Gen Virol. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 26873847