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4: Group Translocators

Group translocation involves a combined chemical and vectorial reaction where the transported substrate is modified during the transport process.  This can be in a tightly coupled process where transport can not occur at an appreciable rate without substrate modification, or in a more loosely coupled process where transport can occur without  derivatization, but the normal process involves coupling.  Such processes can involve sugar phosphorylation using phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) mediated by the phosphotransferase system (PTS; 4.A), nucleoside phosphorylation using ATP as the phosphoryl donor (PnuC; 4.B), or carboxylic acid thioesterification using Coenzyme A as the derivatizing agent (FAT; 4.C).

Examples include:

4.A Phosphotransfer-driven Group Translocators.

4.B The Nicotinamide Ribonucleoside Uptake Transporters.

4.C The Acyl CoA Ligase-Coupled Transporters.

4.D Polysaccharide Synthase/Exporters

4.E Vacuolar Polyphosphate Polymerase Group Translocator