1.E.36 The Mycobacterial 2 TMS Phage Holin (M2 Hol) Family
The Mycobactrerial 2 TMS holins have been identified and recognized by Catalao et al (2012). The Mycobacterium phage D29 gp11 protein (1.E.36.1.7) is a holin that, upon expression, rapidly kills both E. coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Shortening gp11 from its C-terminus resulted in diminished cytotoxicity and smaller holes. The two TMSs at the N-terminus alone do not integrate into the cytoplasmic membrane and do not show toxicity. Fusion of the two TMSs and a small C-terminal coiled-coil region resulted in restoration of cell killing. The second TMS is dispensable for toxicity, but the gp11 C-terminal region is necessary but not sufficient for toxicity.
This family belongs to the: Holin VII Superfamily .
References associated with 1.E.36 family:
Catalao MJ., Gil F., Moniz-Pereira J., Sao-Jose C. and Pimentel M. (2013). Diversity in bacterial lysis systems: bacteriophages show the way. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 37(4):554-71. 23043507
Delisle, A.L., G.J. Barcak, and M. Guo. (2006). Isolation and expression of the lysis genes of Actinomyces naeslundii phage Av-1. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 72: 1110-1117. 16461656
Gan, Y., P. Liu, T. Wu, and S. Guo. (2016). Different characteristics between mycobacteriophage Chy1 and D29, which were classified as cluster A2 mycobacteriophages. Indian J. Med. Microbiol. 34: 186-192. 27080770
Kamilla, S. and V. Jain. (2015). Mycobacteriophage D29 holin C-terminal region functionally assists in holin aggregation and bacterial cell death. FEBS J. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 26471254
Lella, M. and R. Mahalakshmi. (2013). Pro-Gly mediated conformational switch of mycobacteriophage D29 holin transmembrane domain I is lipid concentration driven. Chem Commun (Camb) 49: 9594-9596. 24018990
Lella, M. and R. Mahalakshmi. (2016). Engineering a Transmembrane Nanopore Ion Channel from a Membrane Breaker Peptide. J Phys Chem Lett 7: 2298-2303. 27257735
Lella, M. and R. Mahalakshmi. (2016). Solvation Driven Conformational Transitions in the Second Transmembrane Domain of Mycobacteriophage Holin. Biopolymers. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 27287926
Leprince, A., M. Nuytten, E. July, C. Tesseur, and J. Mahillon. (2022). Getting Outside the Cell: Versatile Holin Strategies Used by Distinct Phages to Leave Their Bacillus thuringiensis Host. J. Virol. 96: e0069622. 35758660