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2.A.22.3.2
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA):Na+:Cl- symporter, GAT-1 (Stoichiometry, GABA:Na+ = 1:2 where both Na+ binding sites, Na1 and Na2, have been identified. Na2 but not Na1 can accommodate Li+ (Zhou et al., 2006)). Cai et al. 2005 have reported that N-glycosylation increases the stability, trafficking and GABA-uptake of GABA transporter 1. Glutamine 291 is essential for Cl- binding (Ben-Yona et al., 2011). Four human isoforms have been identified, GAT-1, GAT-2, GAT-3, and GAT-4, all about 70% identical to each other (Borden et al., 1992). GAT-2 transports γ-aminobutyric acid and β-alanine (Christiansen et al, 2007) It also concentratively takes up β-alanine and α-fluoro-β-alanine (Liu et al., 1999). GAT1 is capable of intracellular Na+-, Cl-- and GABA-induced outward currents (reverse GABA transport; GABA efflux) (Bertram et al., 2011). An acidic amino acid residue in transmembrane helix 10 conserved in the Neurotransmitter:Sodium:Symporters is essential for the formation of the extracellular gate of GAT-1 (Ben-Yona and Kanner, 2012). It is required for stringent gating and tight coupling of ion- and substrate-fluxes in the GABA transporter family (Dayan et al. 2017). GAT-1 is the target of the antiepileptic drug, tiagabine (Kardos et al. 2010). The monomeric protein has been purified fused to GFP (Hu et al. 2017). The methodology involving the reconstitution of GABA, glycine and glutamate transporters has been described (Danbolt et al. 2021).

Accession Number:P30531
Protein Name:NTG1 aka GAT-1 aka SLC6A1 aka GABATR aka GABT1 aka GAT1
Length:599
Molecular Weight:67074.00
Species:Homo sapiens (Human) [9606]
Number of TMSs:12
Location1 / Topology2 / Orientation3: Cell membrane1 / Multi-pass membrane protein2
Substrate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)

Cross database links:

RefSeq: NP_003033.3   
Entrez Gene ID: 6529   
Pfam: PF00209   
OMIM: 137165  gene
KEGG: hsa:6529    hsa:6529   

Gene Ontology

GO:0005887 C:integral to plasma membrane
GO:0005332 F:gamma-aminobutyric acid:sodium symporter ac...
GO:0005328 F:neurotransmitter:sodium symporter activity
GO:0006836 P:neurotransmitter transport
GO:0007268 P:synaptic transmission
GO:0030424 C:axon
GO:0009986 C:cell surface
GO:0016021 C:integral to membrane
GO:0005624 C:membrane fraction
GO:0005886 C:plasma membrane
GO:0019717 C:synaptosome
GO:0005332 F:gamma-aminobutyric acid:sodium symporter activity
GO:0051939 P:gamma-aminobutyric acid import
GO:0007612 P:learning
GO:0032229 P:negative regulation of synaptic transmission, GABAergic
GO:0007269 P:neurotransmitter secretion
GO:0014054 P:positive regulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid secretion
GO:0051260 P:protein homooligomerization
GO:0051592 P:response to calcium ion
GO:0042220 P:response to cocaine
GO:0032355 P:response to estradiol stimulus
GO:0010288 P:response to lead ion
GO:0010243 P:response to organic nitrogen
GO:0014074 P:response to purine-containing compound
GO:0009744 P:response to sucrose stimulus
GO:0009636 P:response to toxin
GO:0055085 P:transmembrane transport

References (6)

[1] “Cloning of the human brain GABA transporter.”  Nelson H.et.al.   2387399
[2] “The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3.”  Muzny D.M.et.al.   16641997
[3] “The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).”  The MGC Project Teamet.al.   15489334
[4] “Cloning of the human brain GABA transporter.”  Nelson H.et.al.   2387399
[5] “The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3.”  Muzny D.M.et.al.   16641997
[6] “The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).”  The MGC Project Teamet.al.   15489334

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Predict TMSs (Predict number of transmembrane segments)
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FASTA formatted sequence
1:	MATNGSKVAD GQISTEVSEA PVANDKPKTL VVKVQKKAAD LPDRDTWKGR FDFLMSCVGY 
61:	AIGLGNVWRF PYLCGKNGGG AFLIPYFLTL IFAGVPLFLL ECSLGQYTSI GGLGVWKLAP 
121:	MFKGVGLAAA VLSFWLNIYY IVIISWAIYY LYNSFTTTLP WKQCDNPWNT DRCFSNYSMV 
181:	NTTNMTSAVV EFWERNMHQM TDGLDKPGQI RWPLAITLAI AWILVYFCIW KGVGWTGKVV 
241:	YFSATYPYIM LIILFFRGVT LPGAKEGILF YITPNFRKLS DSEVWLDAAT QIFFSYGLGL 
301:	GSLIALGSYN SFHNNVYRDS IIVCCINSCT SMFAGFVIFS IVGFMAHVTK RSIADVAASG 
361:	PGLAFLAYPE AVTQLPISPL WAILFFSMLL MLGIDSQFCT VEGFITALVD EYPRLLRNRR 
421:	ELFIAAVCII SYLIGLSNIT QGGIYVFKLF DYYSASGMSL LFLVFFECVS ISWFYGVNRF 
481:	YDNIQEMVGS RPCIWWKLCW SFFTPIIVAG VFIFSAVQMT PLTMGNYVFP KWGQGVGWLM 
541:	ALSSMVLIPG YMAYMFLTLK GSLKQRIQVM VQPSEDIVRP ENGPEQPQAG SSTSKEAYI