TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group

2.A.77 The Cadmium Resistance (CadD) Family

Many currently sequenced proteins comprise the CadD family. Two are close orthologues in two Staphylococcus species that have been reported to function in cadmium resistance, a fourth has been reported to possibly function in quaternary ammonium ion export, and the fourth is a distant ORF in Staphylococcus aureus. These proteins are found in Gram-positive bacteria. Their mode of energy coupling has not been investigated, but a proton antiport mechanism is probable. This family is distantly related to members of the LysE family (TC #2.A.75) and the RhtB family (TC #2.A.76). These three families, which together initially comprised the LysE superfamily, all consist of proteins of similar sizes (about 200 residues) and topologies (6 putative transmembrane α-helical segments, TMSs; 5 experimentally determined TMSs). The superfamily has since been expanded.  Bacterial responses and their mechanisms of bacterial metallogenic detoxification under high concentrations of heavy metals have been studied (Li et al. 2022).

The probable reaction catalyzed by these proteins is:

Cationic compound (in) + nH+ (out) Cationic compound (out) + nH+ (in)

This family belongs to the: LysE Superfamily.

References associated with 2.A.77 family:

Cao, Y., X. Jin, E.J. Levin, H. Huang, Y. Zong, M. Quick, J. Weng, Y. Pan, J. Love, M. Punta, B. Rost, W.A. Hendrickson, J.A. Javitch, K.R. Rajashankar, and M. Zhou. (2011). Crystal structure of a phosphorylation-coupled saccharide transporter. Nature 473: 50-54. 21471968
Crupper, S.S., V. Worrell, G.C. Stewart, and J.J. Iandolo. (1999). Cloning and expression of cadD, a new cadmium resistance gene of Staphylococcus aureus. J. Bacteriol. 181: 4071-4075. 10383976
Johnson, D.A., S.G. Tetu, K. Phillippy, J. Chen, Q. Ren, and I.T. Paulsen. (2008). High-throughput phenotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa membrane transport genes. PLoS Genet 4: e1000211. 18833300
Li, X., M. Sun, L. Zhang, R.D. Finlay, R. Liu, and B. Lian. (2022). Widespread bacterial responses and their mechanism of bacterial metallogenic detoxification under high concentrations of heavy metals. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 246: 114193. 36270034