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8.A.85 The Guanylate Cyclase (GC) Family 

cGMP controls many cellular functions ranging from growth, viability, and differentiation to contractility, secretion, and ion transport. The mammalian genome encodes seven transmembrane guanylyl cyclases (GCs), GC-A to GC-G, which mainly modulate submembrane cGMP microdomains (Kuhn 2016). These GCs share a unique topology comprising an extracellular domain, a short transmembrane region, and an intracellular COOH-terminal catalytic (cGMP synthesizing) region. GC-A mediates the endocrine effects of atrial and B-type natriuretic peptides, regulating arterial blood pressure/volume and energy balance. GC-B is activated by C-type natriuretic peptides, stimulating endochondral ossification. GC-C mediates the paracrine effects of guanylins on intestinal ion transport and epithelial turnover. GC-E and GC-F are expressed in photoreceptor cells of the retina, and their activation by intracellular Ca2+-regulated proteins is essential for vision. Finally, in the rodent system two olfactorial GCs, GC-D and GC-G, are activated by low concentrations of CO2 and by peptidergic guanylins and nonpeptidergic odorants as well as by low temperatures, which have implications for social behaviors (Kuhn 2016).

References associated with 8.A.85 family:

Dickey, D.M., A.B. Edmund, N.M. Otto, T.S. Chaffee, J.W. Robinson, and L.R. Potter. (2016). Catalytically Active Guanylyl Cyclase B Requires Endoplasmic Reticulum-mediated Glycosylation, and Mutations That Inhibit This Process Cause Dwarfism. J. Biol. Chem. 291: 11385-11393. 26980729
Frees, A., K.B. Assersen, M. Jensen, P.B.L. Hansen, P.M. Vanhoutte, K. Madsen, A. Federlein, L. Lund, A. Toft, and B.L. Jensen. (2020). Natriuretic peptides relax human intrarenal arteries through natriuretic peptide receptor type-A recapitulated by soluble guanylyl cyclase agonists. Acta Physiol (Oxf) e13565. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 33010104
Koller, K.J., D.G. Lowe, G.L. Bennett, N. Minamino, K. Kangawa, H. Matsuo, and D.V. Goeddel. (1991). Selective activation of the B natriuretic peptide receptor by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP). Science 252: 120-123. 1672777
Kuhn, M. (2016). Molecular Physiology of Membrane Guanylyl Cyclase Receptors. Physiol. Rev. 96: 751-804. 27030537
Legueux-Cajgfinger, Y., M. Velusamy, S. Fathallah, B. Vallin, L. Duca, M. Dauchez, P. Vincent, I. Limon, and R. Blaise. (2023). Unraveling the inhibitory mechanism of adenylyl cyclase 8E: New insights into regulatory pathways of cAMP signal integration. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. Mol. Cell Res 1871: 119645. [Epub: Ahead of Print] 38016490
Smith, M., N. Whittock, A. Searle, M. Croft, C. Brewer, and M. Cole. (2007). Phenotype of autosomal dominant cone-rod dystrophy due to the R838C mutation of the GUCY2D gene encoding retinal guanylate cyclase-1. Eye (Lond) 21: 1220-1225. 17041576
Steinbrecher, K.A. (2014). The multiple roles of guanylate cyclase C, a heat stable enterotoxin receptor. Curr Opin Gastroenterol 30: 1-6. 24304979