TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group

Conotoxin Superfamily

Conotoxin precursors are numerous and divergent in sequence, but they usually have 60 - 120 aas with an N-terminal TMS. They are processed to the active toxin that targets a variety of channels and receptors (SD Robinson and RS Norton, Mar. Drugs 2014, 12, 6058-6101. This Superfamily may be related to the Defensin and Huwentoxin Superfamilies. Conotoxins (CnTX) are bioactive peptides produced by marine molluscs belonging to Conus genus. The structures of these venomous peptides are linked with disulfide bonds formed by a high degree of post-translational modifications and glycosylation steps which increase the diversity and rates of their evolution (A. Gallo et al, 2020 PMID 32877656). A historical perspective of Conotoxins targeting voltage-gated sodium channels has appeared (Groome, 2023, PMID 37103349).

8.B.4 - The Conotoxin T (Conotoxin T) Family
8.B.5 - The Na+/K+/Ca2+ Channel Targeting Tarantula Huwentoxin (THT) Family
8.B.6 - The Ca2+ Channel-targeting Spider Toxin (CST) Family
8.B.10 - The Psalmotoxin-1 (PcTx1) Family
8.B.16 - The Maurocalcine (MaCa) Family
8.B.20 - The Australian Scorpion Toxin (Liotoxin) Family
8.B.21 - The Spider Insecticidal Neurotoxin Cyrtautoxin (Cyrautoxin) Family
8.B.22 - The P-Conotoxin Cystine Knot (P-CCK) Family
8.B.28 - The Mu-Conotoxin (Mu-Conotoxin) Family
8.B.32 - The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor-targeting Alpha-Conotoxin (A-Conotoxin) Family
8.B.34 - The Sigma-Conotoxin (Sigma-Conotoxin) Family
8.B.36 - The Contulakin Lt (Contulakin Lt) Family
8.B.40 - The Conotoxin Con-ikot-ikot/Conopressin/Conophysin/Conodipine (CCCCC) Family