Toxigenic strains of The transport reaction believed to be catalyzed by TcdE is: Toxin (in) → Toxin (out) | ||||

This family belongs to the Holin IV Superfamily . | ||||

| ||||

El Meouche, I. and J. Peltier. (2018). Toxin release mediated by the novel autolysin Cwp19 in. Microb Cell 5: 421-423. | ||||

Govind, R. and B. Dupuy. (2012). Secretion of Clostridium difficile toxins A and B requires the holin-like protein TcdE. PLoS Pathog 8: e1002727. | ||||

Govind, R., L. Fitzwater, and R. Nichols. (2015). Observations on the Role of TcdE Isoforms in Clostridium difficile Toxin Secretion. J. Bacteriol. 197: 2600-2609. | ||||

Jin, M., T. Ye, and X. Zhang. (2013). Roles of bacteriophage GVE2 endolysin in host lysis at high temperatures. Microbiology 159: 1597-1605. | ||||

Kong M. and Ryu S. (2015). Bacteriophage PBC1 and its endolysin as an antimicrobial agent against Bacillus cereus. Appl Environ Microbiol. 81(7):2274-83. | ||||

Mehner-Breitfeld, D., C. Rathmann, T. Riedel, I. Just, R. Gerhard, J. Overmann, and T. Brüser. (2018). Evidence for an Adaptation of a Phage-Derived Holin/Endolysin System to Toxin Transport in. Front Microbiol 9: 2446. | ||||

Sirigi Reddy, A.R., B.P. Girinathan, R. Zapotocny, and R. Govind. (2013). Identification and characterization of Clostridium sordellii toxin gene regulator. J. Bacteriol. 195: 4246-4254. | ||||

Takác, M., A. Witte, and U. Bläsi. (2005). Functional analysis of the lysis genes of Staphylococcus aureus phage P68 in Escherichia coli. Microbiology 151: 2331-2342. | ||||

Tan, K.S., B.Y. Wee, and K.P. Song. (2001). Evidence for holin function of tcdE gene in the pathogenicity of Clostridium difficile. J. Med. Microbiol. 50: 613-619. | ||||

Zimmer, M., N. Vukov, S. Scherer, and M.J. Loessner. (2002). The murein hydrolase of the bacteriophage phi3626 dual lysis system is active against all tested Clostridium perfringens strains. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 68: 5311-5317. | ||||

Examples: | ||||

TC# | Name | Organismal Type | Example | |

1.E.19.1.1 | Holin (161 aas) | Actinobacteria | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.10 | Phage-related holin of 142 aas and 4 TMSs | Tenericutes | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.11 | Holin of 141 aas and 2 TMSs | Chloroflexi | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.12 | Holin of 137 aas and 2 TMSs (Jin | Firmicutes | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.13 | Toxin secretion/holin system; holin of 124 aas | Tenericutes | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.14 | Putative holin of 142 aas | Chloroflexi | Putative holin of | |

1.E.19.1.15 | Putative holin of 141 aas and 3 TMSs | Bacteroidetes | Putative holin of | |

1.E.19.1.16 | Holin of 138 aas and 3 TMSs (Kong and Ryu 2015). | Firmicute phage | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.17 | Holin of 139 aas and 2 TMSs. | Holin of | ||

1.E.19.1.18 | Holin of a tactivirus of 131 aas and 3 TMSs. | Holin of Tectiviridae sp. | ||

1.E.19.1.2 | Uncharacterized protein | Firmicutes | Uncharacterized protein of | |

1.E.19.1.3 | Putative holin of 152 aas and 3 TMSs | Firmicutes | Putative holin of | |

1.E.19.1.4 | Uncharacterized protein | Firmicute viruses | Uncharacterized protein of | |

1.E.19.1.5 | Uncharacterized protein (142 aas) | Firmicutes | Uncharacterized protein of | |

1.E.19.1.6 | Holin | Actinobacteria | Holin of | |

1.E.19.1.7 | Putative holin of 139 aas nd 3 TMSs | Thermatogae | Putative holin of | |

1.E.19.1.8 | Prophage lambda Sa04 protein | Firmicutes | Sa04 protein of | |

1.E.19.1.9 | Holin (129 aas) | Fusobacteria |
| |

Examples: | ||||

TC# | Name | Organismal Type | Example | |

1.E.19.2.1 | Holin of 170 aas and 3 TMSs | Firmicutes | Holin of | |

1.E.19.2.2 |
| Firmicute viruses | Hol15 of Staphylococcal phage P68 | |

1.E.19.2.3 | phage-like holin, YqxH1 (135 aas) | Firmicutes | YqxH1 of | |

Examples: | ||||

TC# | Name | Organismal Type | Example | |

1.E.19.3.1 | The | Firmicutes | TcdE of | |

1.E.19.3.2 | Holin of 141 aas and 3 TMSs, TcsE (Sirigi Reddy | Firmicutes | TcsE of | |

Examples: | ||||

TC# | Name | Organismal Type | Example | |

1.E.19.4.1 |
Holin of | Firmicute viruses | Holin of | |

1.E.19.4.2 | Toxin secretion holin of 137 aas and 3 TMSs. | Actinobacteria | Holin of | |

1.E.19.4.3 | Putative holin of 158 aas and 3 TMSs. | Actinobacteria | Putative holin of | |

1.E.19.4.4 | Uncharacterized holin of 161 aas and 4 TMSs. | Putative holin of Candidatus Bathyarchaeota archaeon | ||

1.E.19.4.5 | Phage holin family protein of 146 aas and 3 TM | Holin of | ||

Examples: | ||||

TC# | Name | Organismal Type | Example | |

1.E.19.5.1 | Holin of 162 aas and 3 TMSs | δ-proteobacteria | Putative holin of | |

1.E.19.5.2 | Holin of 199 aas and 3 TMSs. | Holin of | ||

1.E.19.5.3 | Phage holin family protein of 166 aas and 3 TMSs.
| Holin of | ||

Examples: | ||||

TC# | Name | Organismal Type | Example | |

1.E.19.6.1 | Putative holin of 178 aas and 4 TMSs | Bacteroidetes | Holin of | |

1.E.19.6.2 | Putative holin of 181 aas and 3 TMSs | Bacteroidetes | Holin of | |

1.E.19.6.3 | Putative holin of 170 aas and 3 TMSs | Bacteroidetes | Holin of | |