9.B.34 The Kinase/Phosphatase/Cyclic-GMP Synthase/Cyclic di-GMP Hydrolase (KPSH) Family

The KPSH family, is a heterogeneous group of multidomain proteins, each exhibiting a different set of domain combinations, suggesting differing catalytic and regulatory functions. Catalytic domains in these proteins include kinases, phosphatases, cyclic di-GMP synthetases and cyclic di-GMP hydrolases (KPSH). None of the members of the KPSH family have been functionally characterized, but the sequence similarity with characterized proteins and protein domains allowed functional predictions with a high degree of confidence (Mansour et al., 2007). The N-terminal 'transporter' domain has not been shown to have transport activity.

This family belongs to the BART Superfamily.



Hu, L., C.J. Grim, A.A. Franco, K.G. Jarvis, V. Sathyamoorthy, M.H. Kothary, B.A. McCardell, and B.D. Tall. (2015). Analysis of the cellulose synthase operon genes, bcsA, bcsB, and bcsC in Cronobacter species: Prevalence among species and their roles in biofilm formation and cell-cell aggregation. Food Microbiol 52: 97-105.

Imai, T., S.J. Sun, Y. Horikawa, M. Wada, and J. Sugiyama. (2014). Functional reconstitution of cellulose synthase in Escherichia coli. Biomacromolecules 15: 4206-4213.

Mansour, N.M., M. Sawhney, D.G. Tamang, C. Vogl, and M.H. Saier, Jr. (2007). The bile/arsenite/riboflavin transporter (BART) superfamily. FEBS J. 274: 612-629.

Omadjela, O., A. Narahari, J. Strumillo, H. Mélida, O. Mazur, V. Bulone, and J. Zimmer. (2013). BcsA and BcsB form the catalytically active core of bacterial cellulose synthase sufficient for in vitro cellulose synthesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110: 17856-17861.

Römling, U. and M.Y. Galperin. (2015). Bacterial cellulose biosynthesis: diversity of operons, subunits, products, and functions. Trends Microbiol. 23: 545-557.

Zogaj, X., M. Nimtz, M. Rohde, W. Bokranz, and U. Römling. (2001). The multicellular morphotypes of Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli produce cellulose as the second component of the extracellular matrix. Mol. Microbiol. 39: 1452-1463.


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample

The diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF domain-containing) protein with N-terminal "transporter" or "receptor" domain with 6 TMSs, Dge1 (Mansour et al., 2007).


Dge1 of Deinococcus geothermalis (Q1J0W6)


Transmembrane protein of 371 aas and 5 N-terminal TMSs. It is a positive regulator of cellulose biosynthesis, AdrA (Zogaj et al. 2001).


AdrA of E. coli


Putative diguanylate cyclase of 396 aas, with 6 N-terminal TMSs


Diguanylate cyclase of Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina platensis)


Probable diguanylate cyclase of 564 aas with 1 N-terminal TMS and 1 central TMS, YedQ.  May play a regulatory role in cellulose synthase activity (Hu et al. 2015).

YedQ of E. coli


Diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) domain-containing protein of 906 aas and 10 N-terminal TMSs.

DGC of Bacillus cereus


Putative diguanylate cyclase (GGDEF) with 272 aas and maybe 3 TMSs, two N-terminal, and one near the C-terminus.  This protein is encoded within an operon that also codes a putative phenylpropeneoid ABC-type transporter (TC# 3.A.1.4.11) and a putative phenylacetate-CoA ligase (Q6N8W5).

Putative diguanylate cyclase of Rhodopseudomonas palustris


Hybrid sensor histidine kinase/response regulator of 802 aas and 6 N-terminal TMSs with homology to members of family 9.B.34 in the TM domain.

SK-RR of Ahrensia sp.


EAL domain-containing protein of 878 aas and 6 N-terminal TM

EAL protein of Pseudomonas zhaodongensis


Diguanylate cyclase/phosphodiesterase of 806 aas and 10 N-terminal TMSs.

diGC of Mycolicibacterium rhodesiae


TC#NameOrganismal TypeExample