TCDB is operated by the Saier Lab Bioinformatics Group
2.D: Transcompartment Lipid Carrier

Human ORP5 is proposed to function in efficient nonvesicular transfer of low-density lipoprotein-derived cholesterol (LDL-C) from late endosomes/lysosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human ORP8 is proposed to modulate lipid homeostasis and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) activity. Both ORP5 and ORP8 contain a N-terminal Pleokstrin homology (PH) (residues 125 - 250) domain, a C-terminal Oxysterol binding protein (OSBP-related) domain, and a C-terminal TMS that localizes ORP5 to the ER. Unlike all the other human OSBP/ORPs they lack a FFAT motif (two phenylalanines in an acidic tract). Oxysterol binding proteins are a multigene family that is conserved in yeast, flies, worms, mammals and plants. In general OSBPs and ORPs have been found to be involved in the transport and metabolism of cholesterol and related lipids in eukaryotes. They all contain a C-terminal oxysterol binding domain, and most contain an N-terminal PH domain. OSBP PH domains bind to membrane phosphoinositides and thus play a role in intracellular targeting. They are members of the oxysterol binding protein (OSBP) family which includes OSBP, OSBP-related proteins (ORP), Goodpasture antigen binding protein (GPBP), and Four phosphate adaptor protein 1 (FAPP1). They have a wide range of purported functions including sterol transport, cell cycle control, pollen development and vesicle transport from the Golgi which recognizes both PI lipids and ARF proteins. PH domains have diverse functions, but in general are involved in targeting proteins to the appropriate cellular location or in the interaction with a binding partner. They share little sequence conservation, but all have a common fold, which is electrostatically polarized. Less than 10% of PH domains bind phosphoinositide phosphates (PIPs) with high affinity and specificity. PH domains are distinguished from other PIP-binding domains by their specific high-affinity binding to PIPs with two vicinal phosphate groups: PtdIns(3,4)P2, PtdIns(4,5)P2 or PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 which results in targeting some PH domain proteins to the plasma membrane. A few display strong specificity in lipid binding. Any specificity is usually determined by loop regions or insertions in the N-terminus of the domain, which are not conserved across all PH domains. PH domains are found in cellular signaling proteins such as serine/threonine kinase, tyrosine kinases, regulators of G-proteins, endocytotic GTPases, adaptors, as well as cytoskeletal associated molecules and lipid associated enzymes.